Short-sightedness is characterised by a longer than normal eyeball. Due to this the retina is more stretched and therefore more fragile. In a patient suffering from acute short-sightedness, myopic maculopathy appears when the central retina shows degenerative anomalies due to an excessively long eyeball and with an atrophic retina.
A severe and rapid drop in visual acuity can appear when abnormal blood vessels develop in the centre of the retina. In this case you are in the same situation as wet senile macular degeneration.
The symptoms are identical to those of AMD. The first symptoms are generally a drop in close up vision and a waviness of straight lines. Black marks or spots may also appear in the visual field and colours may blur.
People with severe short-sightedness – more than 8 diopters - are mainly affected.
The cause of myopic maculopathy is the stretching – and therefore fragilisation – of the retina due to a longer than normal eyeball.
The development of myopic maculopathy is similar to that of AMD.
On examining the back of the eye, atrophic strands on the temporal side of the optic nerve are observed, which may extended to the posterior pole. In some patients, sub-retinal ruptures of the Bruch membrane can also be observed. The appearance of a choroidal neovascularisation leads to a drop in visual acuity and deformed images (metamorphopsias). A fluorescein angiography show up ruptures of the Bruch membrane and neovascularisations. When neovascularisation is hidden by a haemorrhage, infrared angiography with indocynanine green is necessary.
Just like AMD, some studies have shown that taking vitamin based medicines and other dietary supplements and anti-oxidants may slow the onset of AMD.